Category Archives: First Nations

#craftreconciliation: Questioning

 

design process

Wikwemikong High School #craftreconciliation 

 

In the fall of 2016, Wab Kinew wrote a Facebook post inviting educators to partner “mainstream” classes with First Nation schools/classes to discuss “What does reconciliation look like?”.  Jaclyn Calder and I joined forces (along with Shannon Simpson and Caroline Black) to design a project that offered students an opportunity to think deeply about the relationship between Natives and non-Natives in Canada, generally, and their understanding of reconciliation, specifically. You can view the project at #CraftReconciliation with SCDSB, Wikwemikong, and Rama First Nations.

Here I am summarizing and reflecting on the project. There are five posts in this series, and they are organized around the Ontario Adolescent Literacy Guide‘s five components:

I have also organized the posts in a way that I hope makes visible the teaching – learning process so that other teachers can ‘see’ the learning that emerged from this project.

Questioning

Refers to students’ curiousity, exploration, and inquiry to evoke, expose, and extend their thinking

Questioning means…

 

From theory

Pose and answer questions in collaboration with peers to expose various ways of thinking

To practice

I use the Question Formulation Technique (QFT) whenever the students need to generate some questions on a topic or issue.

The (QFT) is a step-by-step process that helps students learn how to produce their own questions, improve them, and strategize on how to use them.  Using the QFT requires that students ask all the questions.  The teacher’s role is simply to facilitate that process.

Below you can see what the students did in small groups. One student does all the writing. I review the process (because we have done this many times). I manage the time. I cheerlead. I do not give students question suggestions.

I used this question focus (thanks Jennifer Casa-Todd) because it incorporates the general idea of tolerance, racism, and the dominant culture without focusing on ideas specific to First Nations, the Truth and Reconciliation  or  #craftreconciliation. The goal is to teach students how to use questioning to generate ideas to ultimately create a research plan.

Question Focus:

“Canadians are tolerant of people’s heritage, customs, and religious beliefs; we are far less racist than any other country.”

Step 1: Write the quote above on your chart paper.

Step 2: In your group, brainstorm as many questions that relate to this quote as your can – 5 min

Step 3: Categorize your questions as opened or closed – 1 min

Step 4: Change one open question to a closed question – 1 min

Step 5: Choose what you feel are your 2 most important questions and discuss why they are the most important – 4 min

Step 6: Present and add you questions to the wall.

Here are a few of the questions the students presented:

  1. Why is Canada so accepting of other cultures and customs and not FN’s customs & beliefs?
  2. How is Canada more tolerant than other countries?
  3. Are we necessarily talking about Aboriginal people?
  4. Is this prompt by a non-aboriginal person?
  5. Why are Canadians good with everybody who isn’t First Nations?

Want to learn more about the QFT process?

From theory

Explore, wonder, and investigate to solve problems and build understanding

To practice

Next, students used an Inquiry Planner to track their thinking and to help them determine a specific topic for research that they are truly interested in.

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I wish I had more of the inquiry planners to share; however, this was a non-digital task so I don’t have them anymore. The final column is not completed because this early thinking led students into the full research process. The connections they made turned up in the research report planner. This student drew upon her prior knowledge of racism, the class readings we worked with together to expand and extend our background knowledge, and the QFT questions to help her generate her own thinking about the topic of racism. Others explored stereotypes, residential schools, a specific call to action, etc.

From theory

Ask questions that clarify, extend thinking and challenge ideas to probe more deeply into an issue or topic.

To practice

The above inquiry planner generated some thinking and questions around a topic the student wanted to know more about. She drew on the readings and conversations of the course, but she also had to find her own article, annotate it, and create a research note. Now, she was ready to tackle the full research process. Students could choose to continue working with their initial topic or they could change their topic based on the learning that they did in the initial inquiry process. The student who chose to explore racism initially (above) decided to explore a new topic. You can see that she has  a few questions on the topic of intergenerational trauma. This was new learning for her that emerged from her reading for her racism inquiry and it drove the focus for her research report.

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From theory

Use technology to pose questions and explore divergent perspectives

To practice

We used many different types of technology to ask questions and consider each other’s perspectives. Some of the students used bubbl.us or Mindomo to organize their thinking and planning. Others posted questions and responded to questions in the discussion forum. We all listened to various members of the project present their ideas about reconciliation via Google Hangouts. Click on the image below to hear a brief exchange between a student from Caroline Black‘s class and another student. Also note the responses of the students on screen to the question, the wait, and the response. Interesting.

 

 

From theory

Use self-questioning to assess readiness and guide learning

To practice

design process

Throughout the build portion of the project students were asked to reference the design process, and ask themselves, Where am I in this design cycle? What do I have to do next? What’s my plan?  This self-assessing took place in their notebooks and in conferences, neither of which I collected. One student did make reference to this process in his final course reflection, which I included in the first post of this series. 

The #craftreconciliation project is full of examples that illustrate how students used questioning to help them make connections, build knowledge, and develop as independent learners.

If you have questions about #craftreconciliation or if there are parts of this post that need clarification, please use the comment box to connect with me.

Up next: Strategy

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#craftreconciliation: Critical Literacy

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In the fall of 2016, Wab Kinew wrote a facebook post inviting educators to partner “mainstream” classes with First Nation schools/classes to discuss “What does reconciliation look like?”.  Jaclyn Calder and I joined forces (along with Shannon Simpson and Caroline Black) to design a project that offered students an opportunity to think deeply about the relationship between Natives and non-Natives in Canada, generally, and their understanding of reconciliation, specifically. You can view the project at #CraftReconciliation with SCDSB, Wikwemikong, and Rama First Nations.

Here I am summarizing and reflecting on the project. There are five posts in this series, and they are organized around the Ontario Adolescent Literacy Guide‘s five components:

I have also organized the posts in a way that I hope makes visible the teaching – learning process so that other teachers can ‘see’ the learning that emerged from this project.

Critical Literacy

Refers to students critically analyzing and evaluating text as it relates to issues of equity, power, and social justice to inform a critical stance, response and/or action

From Theory      

Use technology to seek divergent perspectives, interact with authentic audiences and express ideas.                               

To Practice

In the beginning of the #craftreconciliation project, we worked on building students’ prior knowledge of the Truth and Reconciliation Report Calls to Action. We read about the calls to action, discussed them to unpack what they might look like in action, and then individually we wrote about the “most important call”. Finally, we prepared to share our thinking and to listen to the perspective of others in the project.

Google Hangout Prep

Choose ‘the most important’ Call to Action from the Truth and Reconciliation Report of Canada and share with the rest of the group.

  1. What is the recommendation?
  2. What are some examples of that recommendation in action?
  3. Why is this the most important recommendation to focus on to reach reconciliation?

From Theory

Take a stance and engage in a response or action in the interest of equity, fairness, and social justice

To Practice

Students had multiple ways to articulate a response to the issues around equity, fairness, and social justice throughout the project: the hangouts and backchannel, discussion threads, Goodreads group, and their builds and research reports. A few students also decided to share their thinking with CBC Sudbury. The image below is linked to one student’s interview.

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“Breaking Sterotypes” emerged near the end of #craftreconciliation and provided students with another way to engage in the broader conversation of reconciliation.

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Breaking Stereotypes

From Theory

Determine whose voices are present and whose voices are missing from the text

To Practice

When students are learning about topics or issues that they care deeply about, the researching; that is, the planning, reading/viewing and note making process become personal. We gravitate toward the information that confirms our perspective. Most of the work in the research process is done in student-teacher conferences (which I need to learn to or remember to record!), but the planner below displays one student’s thinking and my initial thoughts.

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From Theory

Evaluate sources for bias, reliability, fairness, and validity

To Practice

One step in the research process is to make notes from sources. At then end of each note, students are required to summarize the main ideas of the text and complete an evaluation of the source. The criteria we use is SCARS.

Rating Scale

When you find what looks like a perfect source, quickly skim the material and on the back of your research note page, rate the source according to the 5 criteria on a scale of 0-2 (0=none or poor; 1=not bad or acceptable, 2=excellent).

  • S (sufficient) = 0 (i.e. very short article or a very narrow focus)
  • C (current) = 2 (i.e. published in a recent magazine)
  • A (accurate) = 1 (i.e. mostly reliable writer, credible magazine, but no bibliography included)
  • R (relevant) = 2 (i.e. exactly fits the topic I chose)
  • S (suitable) = 1 (i.e. some language that isn’t clear, no bias or bias is stated as part of the argument)

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From Theory

Recognize that texts are created by authors who have certain perspectives and bias

To Practice

The article “Doctor gives First Nations child ‘Greetings, Native Savages’ sticker” generated a range of responses as we unpacked the text together. First, students wrote a purpose question for reading and making notes based on the headline of the article only.

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Next, using Hypothes.is, students collaboratively annotated the article. You can see a few of their comments below. Then we had a class discussion about the article. I wondered out loud about why this hospital  would be giving out stickers and where the stickers come from. I asked students to make connections to a time when they received a sticker/prize from someone and how they felt about getting it. I asked them to consider the source. Some of the students had seen the movie and they recounted it for the class. What does the sticker have to do with the movie? Did the text on the sticker come from the movie?

Silence.

Students did some quick searches and found a few reviews that gave them insight into the movie’s themes of colonization, power, subjugation, and cultural disregard.

So what?

Student comments and questions included the following:

Dreamworks produced a movie that challenges the view of the dominant culture.

Yes, but the line from the sticker never actually occurs in the movie. Who made the sticker then?

Is the hospital at fault for buying any promotional items?

It seems that the First Nation community has some legitimate concerns about their treatment at this hospital. Why did CBC use that headline? Are they being sensationalist?

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Companion pieces to the above news article:

Home Is The Cutest Vision Of Colonial Domination You’ll Ever See

Film Review: Home – A colourful take on colonialism

The #craftreconciliation project is full of examples that illustrate students working on the development of their critical literacy skills. When students are studying topics and issues for which they have deep prior knowledge, they are more able to challenge the ideas and perspectives found in all of the texts they consume.

If you have questions about #craftreconciliation or if there are parts of this post that need clarification, please use the comment box to connect with me.

Up next: Questioning.

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#craftreconciliation: Voice & Identity

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In the fall of 2016, Wab Kinew wrote a facebook post inviting educators to partner “mainstream” classes with First Nation schools/classes to discuss “What does reconciliation look like?”.  Jaclyn Calder and I joined forces (along with Shannon Simpson and Caroline Black) to design a project that offered students an opportunity to think deeply about the relationship between Natives and non-Natives in Canada, generally, and their understanding of reconciliation, specifically. You can view the project at #CraftReconciliation with SCDSB, Wikwemikong and Rama First Nations.

Here I am summarizing and reflecting on the project. There are five posts in this series, and they are organized around the Ontario Adolescent Literacy Guide‘s five components:

  • Voice and Identity
  • Critical Literacy
  • Questioning
  • Strategy
  • Metacognition

I have also organized the posts in a way that I hope makes visible the teaching – learning process so that other teachers can ‘see’ the learning that emerged from this project.

Voice and Identity

Refers to students’ decisions, choices, and actions that advocate for their learning, and make connections to the experiences, values, culture, and interests (Adolescent Literacy Guide, 40).

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               Link to example

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This is a two-part example. First, read Seth’s reflection on the inquiry process.

The #craftreconciliation project has been important because we get to see what everyone is thinking on subject #craftreconciliation. I know for my build I followed the #craftreconciliation project design process that is put up in Ms. Balen classroom. The steps help me and nick for this project #craftreconciliation. The first step was clearly define the problem or challenge and are challenge was putting our thoughts onto paper. It was hard to think of an idea to make in minecraft but once we got it we started to conduct our research. We continued following Ms. Balen’s project design process and the next step was to start generating ideas. Our first idea was to make a wampum belt of two people a white man and a native man holding hands in the center, with both of the weapons they would have used back in the day to fight each other like a gun and a bow and arrow. The weapons would be in their opposites hands was suppose to represent the old wars we have been through and them holding hands represents nations coming together and focusing on our relationship as two nations. We got up to a point in where we were just about to build then we noticed that that picture wouldn’t fit in minecraft because it would be too big for the squares of space that we had. So we had to generate a new idea on a new build because we were facing problems with the first build. We were thinking and thinking but finally I came up with the idea that we would make words out of wool. Wool can be easily burned in the game minecraft, that’s why i picked that. The words we use were Genocide, Deceit, and Destruction. Each word was right after the other so one word would be hidden and the one in front of it would be destroyed with fire, keeping in mind that these are the words that we don’t want any part of anymore. Our last word was peace and it was written in stone and that was to represent that it’s here to stay. Peace isn’t going anywhere it will stay between our nations. That was my creation on the #craftreconciliation project and I found that it was fun to show our ideas in minecraft. To sum it up I think that Ms. Balen’s project design process helped us because I need a place the start and something to see visually to stay focused and that’s what the project design process did.

Then listen to Seth and his partner, Nick, describe their build.

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Link to example

The project is full of examples that illustrate “when students can relate what they are learning to something that is important to them, they tend to feel more competent and are likely to think more deeply” (Adolescent Literacy Guide, 45).  For instance, the hangouts (extremely popular events with the students), pushed the students to listen intently to

  • Make connections and respond in the back channel or on camera;
  • Identify various perspectives to note the similarities and differences;
  • Reflect on their own ideas to make decisions about their research and their build.

If you have questions about #craftreconciliation or if there are parts of this post that need clarification, please use the comment box to connect with me.

Up next: Critical Literacy

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#onewordONT 6 months later…

How is your #oneword guiding your work and learning this year?

DISCIPLINE

Six months ago I had defined my #oneword as the ability,

 to say “no” to those opportunities that fall outside of one’s focus. (Collins, 2001)

This definition isn’t wrong, but it is simplistic.

Jim Collins, author of Good to Great describes both disciplines of thought and of action.

To have discipline of thought is to

  • Confront the brutal facts (yet never lose faith), and
  • Define what the one big thing is that is important to me (who am I; what I am about or my Hedgehog Concept) and transcend the curse of competence.

To have disciplined action is to

  • Exercise self-discipline; to know that I have more than a job to do; I have a responsibility;
  • Use technology  as an accelerator for great performance; to be intentional in its use.

I have spent the past six months thinking deeply about these constraints. What am I best at? What drives the educational engine of my classroom? What is the driving force of my educational passion? I talked to many people inside and outside of education. I considered my ‘from the gut’ reactions to decisions made by parents, students, colleagues, and administrators. I examined what I did say ‘yes’ to and why. Did my thinking and my action align?

I have taught at a First Nations school for the past 16 years. I have always worked at helping my students develop their communication skills not just because that was my job, but because I believed that if my students’ were confident in speaking, reading, writing, and creating then there was a better chance that they would find a way to tell their story. I have done a myriad of things over the years inside and outside the classroom:

  • Stratford trips
  • Student Council advisor
  • Art events
  • Leadership courses
  • School newspaper

And likely some of these activities supported some of the students in their lives after high school. Yet, when I returned to teaching after a three year stint as a central coach, I was determined to ensure that the students had hard skills in using the technologies available to them. This commitment on my part precluded the organization or participation in those other more customary high school activities (most of which are extra-curricular) because I had to do the learning too!

The other thing that happened post-2013 was (and is) the growing movement of First Nations people who have entered the pubic arena to speak to the inequities that their people have faced both historically and continue to in the present day. Sparked by the Idle No More Movement, my students became more interested in all aspects of their culture and history. There has been explicit interest in that learning, and from my perspective, there are more students willing to share their understanding of the world (ways of knowing) with me.

This is crucial contextual information because while all the above is true, I was having this “what is my focus” debate with myself. Maybe it is obvious to others, but besides learning how to use technology as an accelerator for learning and teaching, I was also facilitating collaborative inquiries (CI), writing on e-learning teams, and working with  OSAPAC. This diverse array of educational experiences did not feel like ‘discipline’ to me.

I had this conversation at the same time as I was reading Good to Great:

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The #craftreconciliation project has clarified the disciplined thought and action that has emerged in my classroom.

  • My students and I had learned how to integrate technology into the teaching – learning process and the technology was now an accelerator in the learning process.
  • #Craftreconciliation offered the opportunity for increasingly rich conversation about technology, inquiry, and pedagogy. BUT, it also created a platform from which I could support First Nations students in discovering their voices and inserting them into the conversation.

This then is ‘discipline’ six months later:

What am I best at?

I have the skill, the perseverance, the perspective to support my students.

What drives the educational engine of my classroom?

A blend of high expectations, critical and independent thinking, and flexible support for the process of learning.

What is the driving force of my educational passion?

An unwavering belief that First Nations students are the next generation of leaders in this country.

So, what’s your reflection on your #oneword for 2016?

Please share your thinking with me and others by leaving a comment below.

 

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