Tag Archives: adolescent literacy

#craftreconciliation: Strategy

 

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In the fall of 2016, Wab Kinew wrote a Facebook post inviting educators to partner “mainstream” classes with First Nation schools/classes to discuss “What does reconciliation look like?”.  Jaclyn Calder and I joined forces (along with Shannon Simpson and Caroline Black) to design a project that offered students an opportunity to think deeply about the relationship between Natives and non-Natives in Canada, generally, and their understanding of reconciliation, specifically. You can view the project at #CraftReconciliation with SCDSB, Wikwemikong, and Rama First Nations.

Here I am summarizing and reflecting on the project. There are five posts in this series, and they are organized around the Ontario Adolescent Literacy Guide‘s five components:

I have also organized the posts in a way that I hope makes visible the teaching – learning process so that other teachers can ‘see’ the learning that emerged from this project.

Strategy

Refers to students purposefully selcting and using techniques and processes in order to construct and communicate meaning.

Strategy means…

From theory

Apply comprehension strategies before, during and after reading, listening, and viewing to develop understanding.

To practice

The #craftreconciliation project for me was a way to frame the research process for students. I want them to care about their topic. I want them to learn the steps in the process so well that they can decide to innovate and make the process theirs. But first, we work on making meaning with increasingly complex text. The conversation about reconciliation can be challenging not just because it might be emotionally charged content, but also because the content; that is the history, the politics, the culture, the opinions found in these conversations are complex. Take, for example, Daniel Francis’ ideas around the imaginary Indian. Students struggle to grasp the notion that people think that “Indians” don’t exist in the modern world, and especially that Francis’ argument that the “history of the “Indian” image mythologized by popular Canadian culture since 1850, [propagates] stereotypes that exist to this day.” Or the article on the Greetings Native Savages” sticker that I wrote about in #craftreconciliation: Critical Literacy. This is interesting, but tough stuff.

And worth the effort.

When we recognize how the ideas in a text connect to our experiences and beliefs, events happening in the larger world, our understanding of history, and our knowledge of other texts, we value what we are reading.

What’s the purpose of doing this thinking?

    • To deepen meaning and understanding
    • To think critically
    • To evaluate what I  have read/viewed/listened to
    • To accept or reject the text
    • To understand various perspectives

How do we do it?

The strategy I focus on is annotating a text. There are many systems for annotating a text but all of them push readers to read actively. Here is my list:

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Students initially hate this process because…well… because it is work. And because they have not yet discovered the pure joy that comes from marking up a text as a means of discovery. Although the student below includes highlighting in his repertoire, he identifies what each colour signifies creating intentional and meaningful annotations.

 

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From theory

Use subject-specific processes to create, solve problems, research, make decisions, revise thinking, communicate ideas and reflect on learning.

To practice

I want to make two points about teaching the research process.

  1. We need to teach it.
  2. It’s a process.

This is hard, hard work that we need to do. Every time we make a major purchase in our lives, we will want to research to find the best product, the best deal, the most appropriate item. Never mind the loftier research pursuits that we might engage in like researching for a job or which candidate should get my vote.

Here are the steps in my research process:Screen Shot 2016-07-18 at 5.45.55 PM

Here is one student’s process:

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Here is one student’s mid-term reflection:

When it comes down to researching and creating research notes, annotating, increasing vocabulary to understand harder texts, and learning about media portrayal, I have to say this is the biggest learning process I’ll ever go through. I have to say it is fun and hard, and in going through it I have learned about so many things: purpose questions, styles of text, elements of text/posts, learning new words and phrases. Furthermore, the process gives me more knowledge to use for when I head off for college.

Did you notice he used the words FUN and HARD in the same breath?

That’s what I’m talkin’bout.

From theory

Select and use appropriate organizers to gather, manage and communicate information and ideas

To practice

I realize I am running the risk of English teachers everywhere lining up to take a shot at me for using a formulaic approach to writing. I hate it too, and as soon as a student says to me “I’m done with that structure!” the celebrations ensue. We are learning to include evidence from our notes into our writing to support our ideas. We are learning to use transitions to connect and link our ideas.

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I do lots of modeling on how to write, which is posted digitally and in the classroom for student reference.

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From theory

Use a writing process to generate, explore, develop, and refine writing for particular purposes, forms and audiences.

To practice

 

This image is the bottom portion from the Research Process above. Not only do I model how to write each type of paragraph in the report, but we work together through the writing and revising process. While I know that many teachers are dissatisfied with the peer editing/reviewing process, my students use peer feedback extensively, likely because we use the same peer editing tool structure over and over. Practice for mastery!

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The #craftreconciliation project is full of examples that illustrate how students used reading and writing strategies to help them develop their researching skills, including the planning skills they used to plan their #craft builds.

If you have questions about #craftreconciliation or if there are parts of this post that need clarification, please use the comment box to connect with me.

Up next: Metacognition.

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#craftreconciliation: Questioning

 

design process

Wikwemikong High School #craftreconciliation 

 

In the fall of 2016, Wab Kinew wrote a Facebook post inviting educators to partner “mainstream” classes with First Nation schools/classes to discuss “What does reconciliation look like?”.  Jaclyn Calder and I joined forces (along with Shannon Simpson and Caroline Black) to design a project that offered students an opportunity to think deeply about the relationship between Natives and non-Natives in Canada, generally, and their understanding of reconciliation, specifically. You can view the project at #CraftReconciliation with SCDSB, Wikwemikong, and Rama First Nations.

Here I am summarizing and reflecting on the project. There are five posts in this series, and they are organized around the Ontario Adolescent Literacy Guide‘s five components:

I have also organized the posts in a way that I hope makes visible the teaching – learning process so that other teachers can ‘see’ the learning that emerged from this project.

Questioning

Refers to students’ curiousity, exploration, and inquiry to evoke, expose, and extend their thinking

Questioning means…

 

From theory

Pose and answer questions in collaboration with peers to expose various ways of thinking

To practice

I use the Question Formulation Technique (QFT) whenever the students need to generate some questions on a topic or issue.

The (QFT) is a step-by-step process that helps students learn how to produce their own questions, improve them, and strategize on how to use them.  Using the QFT requires that students ask all the questions.  The teacher’s role is simply to facilitate that process.

Below you can see what the students did in small groups. One student does all the writing. I review the process (because we have done this many times). I manage the time. I cheerlead. I do not give students question suggestions.

I used this question focus (thanks Jennifer Casa-Todd) because it incorporates the general idea of tolerance, racism, and the dominant culture without focusing on ideas specific to First Nations, the Truth and Reconciliation  or  #craftreconciliation. The goal is to teach students how to use questioning to generate ideas to ultimately create a research plan.

Question Focus:

“Canadians are tolerant of people’s heritage, customs, and religious beliefs; we are far less racist than any other country.”

Step 1: Write the quote above on your chart paper.

Step 2: In your group, brainstorm as many questions that relate to this quote as your can – 5 min

Step 3: Categorize your questions as opened or closed – 1 min

Step 4: Change one open question to a closed question – 1 min

Step 5: Choose what you feel are your 2 most important questions and discuss why they are the most important – 4 min

Step 6: Present and add you questions to the wall.

Here are a few of the questions the students presented:

  1. Why is Canada so accepting of other cultures and customs and not FN’s customs & beliefs?
  2. How is Canada more tolerant than other countries?
  3. Are we necessarily talking about Aboriginal people?
  4. Is this prompt by a non-aboriginal person?
  5. Why are Canadians good with everybody who isn’t First Nations?

Want to learn more about the QFT process?

From theory

Explore, wonder, and investigate to solve problems and build understanding

To practice

Next, students used an Inquiry Planner to track their thinking and to help them determine a specific topic for research that they are truly interested in.

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I wish I had more of the inquiry planners to share; however, this was a non-digital task so I don’t have them anymore. The final column is not completed because this early thinking led students into the full research process. The connections they made turned up in the research report planner. This student drew upon her prior knowledge of racism, the class readings we worked with together to expand and extend our background knowledge, and the QFT questions to help her generate her own thinking about the topic of racism. Others explored stereotypes, residential schools, a specific call to action, etc.

From theory

Ask questions that clarify, extend thinking and challenge ideas to probe more deeply into an issue or topic.

To practice

The above inquiry planner generated some thinking and questions around a topic the student wanted to know more about. She drew on the readings and conversations of the course, but she also had to find her own article, annotate it, and create a research note. Now, she was ready to tackle the full research process. Students could choose to continue working with their initial topic or they could change their topic based on the learning that they did in the initial inquiry process. The student who chose to explore racism initially (above) decided to explore a new topic. You can see that she has  a few questions on the topic of intergenerational trauma. This was new learning for her that emerged from her reading for her racism inquiry and it drove the focus for her research report.

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From theory

Use technology to pose questions and explore divergent perspectives

To practice

We used many different types of technology to ask questions and consider each other’s perspectives. Some of the students used bubbl.us or Mindomo to organize their thinking and planning. Others posted questions and responded to questions in the discussion forum. We all listened to various members of the project present their ideas about reconciliation via Google Hangouts. Click on the image below to hear a brief exchange between a student from Caroline Black‘s class and another student. Also note the responses of the students on screen to the question, the wait, and the response. Interesting.

 

 

From theory

Use self-questioning to assess readiness and guide learning

To practice

design process

Throughout the build portion of the project students were asked to reference the design process, and ask themselves, Where am I in this design cycle? What do I have to do next? What’s my plan?  This self-assessing took place in their notebooks and in conferences, neither of which I collected. One student did make reference to this process in his final course reflection, which I included in the first post of this series. 

The #craftreconciliation project is full of examples that illustrate how students used questioning to help them make connections, build knowledge, and develop as independent learners.

If you have questions about #craftreconciliation or if there are parts of this post that need clarification, please use the comment box to connect with me.

Up next: Strategy

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Filed under #craftreconciliation, First Nations, Literacy

#craftreconciliation: Critical Literacy

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In the fall of 2016, Wab Kinew wrote a facebook post inviting educators to partner “mainstream” classes with First Nation schools/classes to discuss “What does reconciliation look like?”.  Jaclyn Calder and I joined forces (along with Shannon Simpson and Caroline Black) to design a project that offered students an opportunity to think deeply about the relationship between Natives and non-Natives in Canada, generally, and their understanding of reconciliation, specifically. You can view the project at #CraftReconciliation with SCDSB, Wikwemikong, and Rama First Nations.

Here I am summarizing and reflecting on the project. There are five posts in this series, and they are organized around the Ontario Adolescent Literacy Guide‘s five components:

I have also organized the posts in a way that I hope makes visible the teaching – learning process so that other teachers can ‘see’ the learning that emerged from this project.

Critical Literacy

Refers to students critically analyzing and evaluating text as it relates to issues of equity, power, and social justice to inform a critical stance, response and/or action

From Theory      

Use technology to seek divergent perspectives, interact with authentic audiences and express ideas.                               

To Practice

In the beginning of the #craftreconciliation project, we worked on building students’ prior knowledge of the Truth and Reconciliation Report Calls to Action. We read about the calls to action, discussed them to unpack what they might look like in action, and then individually we wrote about the “most important call”. Finally, we prepared to share our thinking and to listen to the perspective of others in the project.

Google Hangout Prep

Choose ‘the most important’ Call to Action from the Truth and Reconciliation Report of Canada and share with the rest of the group.

  1. What is the recommendation?
  2. What are some examples of that recommendation in action?
  3. Why is this the most important recommendation to focus on to reach reconciliation?

From Theory

Take a stance and engage in a response or action in the interest of equity, fairness, and social justice

To Practice

Students had multiple ways to articulate a response to the issues around equity, fairness, and social justice throughout the project: the hangouts and backchannel, discussion threads, Goodreads group, and their builds and research reports. A few students also decided to share their thinking with CBC Sudbury. The image below is linked to one student’s interview.

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“Breaking Sterotypes” emerged near the end of #craftreconciliation and provided students with another way to engage in the broader conversation of reconciliation.

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Breaking Stereotypes

From Theory

Determine whose voices are present and whose voices are missing from the text

To Practice

When students are learning about topics or issues that they care deeply about, the researching; that is, the planning, reading/viewing and note making process become personal. We gravitate toward the information that confirms our perspective. Most of the work in the research process is done in student-teacher conferences (which I need to learn to or remember to record!), but the planner below displays one student’s thinking and my initial thoughts.

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From Theory

Evaluate sources for bias, reliability, fairness, and validity

To Practice

One step in the research process is to make notes from sources. At then end of each note, students are required to summarize the main ideas of the text and complete an evaluation of the source. The criteria we use is SCARS.

Rating Scale

When you find what looks like a perfect source, quickly skim the material and on the back of your research note page, rate the source according to the 5 criteria on a scale of 0-2 (0=none or poor; 1=not bad or acceptable, 2=excellent).

  • S (sufficient) = 0 (i.e. very short article or a very narrow focus)
  • C (current) = 2 (i.e. published in a recent magazine)
  • A (accurate) = 1 (i.e. mostly reliable writer, credible magazine, but no bibliography included)
  • R (relevant) = 2 (i.e. exactly fits the topic I chose)
  • S (suitable) = 1 (i.e. some language that isn’t clear, no bias or bias is stated as part of the argument)

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From Theory

Recognize that texts are created by authors who have certain perspectives and bias

To Practice

The article “Doctor gives First Nations child ‘Greetings, Native Savages’ sticker” generated a range of responses as we unpacked the text together. First, students wrote a purpose question for reading and making notes based on the headline of the article only.

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Next, using Hypothes.is, students collaboratively annotated the article. You can see a few of their comments below. Then we had a class discussion about the article. I wondered out loud about why this hospital  would be giving out stickers and where the stickers come from. I asked students to make connections to a time when they received a sticker/prize from someone and how they felt about getting it. I asked them to consider the source. Some of the students had seen the movie and they recounted it for the class. What does the sticker have to do with the movie? Did the text on the sticker come from the movie?

Silence.

Students did some quick searches and found a few reviews that gave them insight into the movie’s themes of colonization, power, subjugation, and cultural disregard.

So what?

Student comments and questions included the following:

Dreamworks produced a movie that challenges the view of the dominant culture.

Yes, but the line from the sticker never actually occurs in the movie. Who made the sticker then?

Is the hospital at fault for buying any promotional items?

It seems that the First Nation community has some legitimate concerns about their treatment at this hospital. Why did CBC use that headline? Are they being sensationalist?

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Companion pieces to the above news article:

Home Is The Cutest Vision Of Colonial Domination You’ll Ever See

Film Review: Home – A colourful take on colonialism

The #craftreconciliation project is full of examples that illustrate students working on the development of their critical literacy skills. When students are studying topics and issues for which they have deep prior knowledge, they are more able to challenge the ideas and perspectives found in all of the texts they consume.

If you have questions about #craftreconciliation or if there are parts of this post that need clarification, please use the comment box to connect with me.

Up next: Questioning.

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Filed under #craftreconciliation, First Nations, Literacy